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On the one hand , we understand ____________________ as the study of the physical
aspects of the symbols that constitute writing systems . Its unit is the symbol . On the other hand , ____________________ is the study of the linguistic contrasts that writing systems convey , and its unit is the grapheme , which can be defined as the smallest contrastive unit in a writing system that might produce a change in meaning .

Besides , ____________________ is the set of symbols used to write a language , as well as the set of rules describing how to write correctly ( including spelling , punctuation and capitalization ) . It also includes the writing system of a language .

Apart from this , it is worth mentioning that there are several types of writing systems among which we find on the one hand :

- the ____________________ systems : which show a clear relationship between the symbols and sounds of language .

- the non - phonological systems : which do not show a clear relationship between the symbols and the ____________________ .

There are many principal reasons for the discrepancy between the written representation of many English words and their actual ____________________ . The first thing that we need to remember is that English is a mixture of many languages .

On the other hand , reading and spelling skills which are connected to the written Word are needed to read and spell successfully . Therefore , we assume that , in order to be good readers and spellers , ____________________ of letters is needed in addition to knowledge of the phonological structure .

According to Matthews , the skills that students should acquire regarding the witten code are :

- ____________________ skills : writing words correctly including aspects such as capitalization ,
punctuation and spelling
- ____________________ skills : the ability to use a variety of sentence patterns and constructions
- ____________________ skills : the ability to express precise meaning in a variety of styles and registers
- ____________________ skills : the ability to use cohesion devices in order to link parts of a text
- ____________________ skills : writing ideas with coherence and summarize relevant points .

These stages must be followed when teaching to write :

1 . ____________________ practice : copying material provided by the teacher is of great pedagogical value because it helps students reinforce spelling and sentence structure , helping them to retain words .

2 . ____________________ / Guided practice :

- Word - level : ? making a list , a personal dictionary , crosswords , matching labels to
pictures , anagrams ? .
- Sentence - level : ? writing speech bubbles for cartoons , sequencing sentences , definitions , descriptions ? .
- Paragraphs

3 . Free ____________________ : students will be encouraged to produce writing ? free essays ,
compositions ? . This stage demands sentence and text structure , organizing ideas , etc .

When selecting writing activities to practise spelling , the next sequence must
be followed :

Firstly , we need to work with word - ____________________ activities . In this stage , the students notice the shape of the words and the number of letters so they can make a mental picture of it .

Then , we need to work with activities at ____________________ level . In this stage , the teacher will not have to provide the students with the words they need , they will think about the spelling of words by themselves .

After that , we need to work with activities at ____________________ - level . In this stage , students will write the words they need and also will work with given sentences doing activities like writing speech bubbles for cartoons , sequencing sentences and copying and correcting mistakes .

it is worth mentioning that when analysing or correcting children´s
written work in the activities , it is very important to have a clear approach towards the correction of mistakes : this means that , instead of trying to correct every single mistake , it is wiser to focus on those mistakes that are really important to achieve ____________________ of the whole .